2019年翻译资格笔译高级亚博体育app中心模拟试题:无处藏身

2019-04-28作者:2019nfyz推荐访问:翻译资格 外语

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汉译英

缺乏社会责任感的企业无处藏身

食品行业因导致肥胖而备受指责。手机运营商面临如何保护青少年免遭网络色 情侵害的挑战。

唱片公司因起诉在互联网上分享非法文档的音乐爱好者而遭受抨击。

大企业纷纷被要求解释它们应对越来越多的社会、道德和环境问题的措施。

美国的一家名为?企业社会责任(BSR)?的非盈利性咨询机构的首席执行官鲍勃·邓恩说,?企业对于BSR所提供的帮助的需求,现在达到了BSR成立九年以来的峰。?向BSR缴纳年费的会员包括许多世界的跨国公司。

微软、朗讯和联合技术和奥驰亚于今年都加入了BSR。作为卡夫食品和烟草巨头菲利浦·莫里斯的母公司,奥驰亚集团一直是压力团体和民事诉讼的重点对象。

一些一直成功地躲避了聚光灯的行业现在也发现自己正成为注意的焦点。社会活动人士已经开始关注一些计算机和通讯公司在加工厂里的工作条件。

金融行业因为给一些国家有争议的项目提供贷款而感到压力。六月份,一些银行,包括花旗银行,巴克莱银行和荷兰银行,纷纷承诺不为有社会和环境问题的项目提供贷款。

今年,一些石油和矿业集团正受到来自于投资者、社会活动分子和英国政府组成的联盟的巨大压力,它们被要求公开其在一些国家的付款情况,其目的在于打击腐 败。

与此同时,世界上一些最知名的鞋和服装品牌,包括李维·史特劳斯、耐克和锐步等,已经通过美国公平劳工协会主动采取措施增加其供应链的透明度。

他们在互联网上公布了第一批针对其供应厂商的独立审计报告,同时还公布了旨在改善低劣劳动标准的措施。

企业在其声誉面临现实的或潜在的威胁时通常会采取行动,卡夫七月份宣布减少其食品中的脂肪和糖的含量,限制每份食品的大小,停止在学校进行营销活动。

一场针对卡夫食品中的脂肪酸过量的诉讼,在卡夫宣布将解决这个问题后很快就撤诉了。

但是,也有一些公司主动采取这方面的行动,他们意识到这样做能提高其竞争力。据邓恩说,寻求竞争优势是俄 国、波兰、土耳其和南非等国家的一些公司开始热衷于企业社会责任的一个重要因素。

在英国,发布社会和环境报告的企业数量在过去的两年中大幅飚升,也折射出这个趋势。据英国的两个的咨询机构SalterBaxter和Context于本月发表的一份题为?方向?的研究报告称,半数以上的富时250指数公司都发布这样的年度报告。

有些行业,包括宾馆业、休闲业以及软件和计算机服务业,依然在遮遮掩掩。然而,随着投资者的关注、政府的监管和来自同行的压力形成了要求披露更多信息合力,这些行业正沦为数量越来越小的少数派。

十多年前,当第一份非财务性企业报表发布时,它的重点是环境问题。现在,在富时250指数公司中,有100家的报告均涉及环保、社会和道德问题。欧洲的50家公司中的40家也发布这样的报告。

然而,该研究发现,在美国标准普尔评级中的50家公司中只有22家发布这类报告。但是,仅仅依靠公司自发的行动能取得多大成就?政府应该承担怎样的角色?消费者能否实现如意算盘,既对企业提出如此高的要求,又不改变自身的生活方式?

参考译文

The food industry is blamed for obesity. Mobile phone operators are challenged to protect teenagers from online pornography.

Record companies are attacked when they sue music-lovers for sharing illegal files on the internet.

Big business is being asked to explain its approach to a growing number of social, ethical and environmental concerns.

“we’re facing the greatest demand for our assistance that we’ve seen in our nine-year history,” says Bob Dunn, chief

Microsoft, Lucent and United Technologies have joined BSR this year, as well as Altria, a more obvious target for pressure groups and litigation, as the parent company of both Kraft Foods and Philip Morris.

Industries that until now had avoided the spotlight are finding attention is now focusing on them. Campaigners are beginning to show interest in working conditions in factories that make equipment for computer and telecommunications companies.

The financial sector has come under pressure over lending to controversial projects in some countries. In June, a group of leading banks, including Citigroup, Barclays and ABN Amro, promised to avoid giving loans for socially or environmentally questionable projects.

Oil and mining groups have come under strong pressure this year from a coalition of investors, activists and the UK government to make public their payments to some countries in an effort to fight corruption.

Some of the world’s biggest footwear and clothing brands, including Levi Strauss, Nike and Reebok, have meanwhile taken voluntary measures through the US Fair Labor Association to increase the transparency of their supply chain.

They published on the internet the first independent audits of their supplier factories, along with the steps taken to improve often terrible labour standards.

Companies usually take action when they face a real or potential threat to their reputation, as when Kraft announced in July it would cut fat and sugar in its food, limit portion sizes and stop marketing in schools.

A lawsuit against Kraft over fatty acids was rapidly withdrawn after it said it would address the issue.

a few companies are, however, taking a lead because they believe it will give them a competitive edge. Mr. Dunn says the search for competitive advantage is one factor creating interest in corporate responsibility among companies in countries such as Russia, Poland, Turkey and South Africa.

In the UK, the trend is also reflected in the sharp rise in social and environmental reporting over the past two years. More than half the FTSE250 companies now produce annual reports , according to Directions, a study published this month by SalterBaxter and Context, two well-known UK consultancies.

Some sectors remain secretive, including hotels and leisure, and software and computer services. But they form a decreasing minority as investor interest, regulation and peer pressure combine to force greater disclosure.

When the first nonfinancial reports came out more than a decade ago, they focused on the environment, social and ethical issues. Forty of the fifty largest European companies also produce reports.

In the US, however, only 22 of the S&P top 50 reported, the study found. But how much can companies be expe4cted to achieve on their own? What is the role of government? Can consumers have it all, demanding such high standards of companies while refusing to change their lifestyle?

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